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Faculty & Research

Howard Gardner

The John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Research Professor of Cognition and Education

Howard Gardner

Degree:  Ph.D., Harvard University, (1971)
Email:  [javascript protected email address]
Phone:  617.496.4929
Personal Site:   Link to Site
Vitae/CV:   Howard Gardner.pdf
Office:  Longfellow 235
Faculty Assistant:  Shinri Furuzawa


Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Research Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He is also an adjunct professor of psychology at Harvard University and senior director of Harvard Project Zero. Among numerous honors, Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship and a Fellowship from the John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 1981 and 2000, respectively. In 1990, he was the first American to receive the University of Louisville's Grawemeyer Award in Education. In recognition of his contributions to both academic theory and public policy, he has received honorary degrees from thirty-one colleges and universities, including institutions in Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, South Korea, and Spain. He has twice been selected by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of 100 most influential public intellectuals in the world. In 2011, Gardner received the Prince of Asturias Award for Social Sciences, and in 2015, he was chosen as the recipient of the Brock International Prize in Education. He has been elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Education, and the London-based Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. He serves on a number of boards, including New York's Museum of Modern Art and the American Philosophical Society.

The author of thirty books translated into thirty-two languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be assessed by standard psychometric instruments (please see Since the middle 1990s, Gardner has directed The Good Project, a group of initiatives, founded in collaboration with psychologists Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William Damon, that promotes excellence, engagement, and ethics in education, preparing students to become good workers and good citizens who contribute to the overall well-being of society. Through research-based concepts, frameworks, and resources, the Project seeks to help students reflect upon the ethical dilemmas that arise in everyday life and give them the tools to make thoughtful decisions.

His most recent research undertaking, conducted with Wendy Fischman, is a large-scale national study documenting how different groups think about the goals of college and the value of a course of study emphasizing liberal arts and sciences. The study seeks to understand how the chief constituencies on campuses (incoming students, graduating students, faculty, senior administrators, parents, alumni/ae, trustees and job recruiters) think about these changes and how they may impact the college experience in our time. Ultimately, the study aims to provide valuable suggestions of how best to provide quality, non-professional higher education in the 21st century. He is also directing an international study of United World Colleges, a network of secondary schools. In 2020, Gardner’s memoir, A Synthesizing Mind will be published by MIT Press.  He blogs regularly here

Areas of Expertise

Life-Long Learning Blog (


The Good Project



Brock International Prize in Education,(2015)

Prince of Asturias Award,(2011)

Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre,(2001)

Guggenheim Fellowship,(2000)

Grawemeyer Award in Education,(1990)

MacArthur Prize Fellowship,(1981)

Sponsored Projects

 <P><h4>An Investigation of Impact: Educational Experience at United World Colleges (2017-2021)<br> The United World Colleges</h4><P>The proposed four-year research project is a collaboration between United World Colleges (UWC) and The Good Project at Project Zero. UWC is a network of seventeen schools, located in countries around the world, emphasizing a shared philosophy of diversity, sustainability, and peace. The project team will investigate the holistic impact of UWC’s educational experience on two subject groups: a cohort of current students, followed across their junior and senior years at participating sites; and groups of alumni at 5, 15, and 25 years post-graduation. The Good Project will develop instruments, which are anticipated to be survey and interview protocols, that will be used to collect data from these subjects. Data collection will occur in partnership with UWC institutions and involve both remote and limited on-site activities. All seventeen UWC member schools are expected to participate in this project. Control group sites, which will consist of comparable secondary schools, will be selected for participation in this study as well. Data will then be analyzed and coded for themes, and findings will be reported. The results will inform UWC’s practices and those of the wider field.<P><h4>The Family Dinner Project (2017-2018)<br> Poses Foundation</h4><P>Research demonstrates that family mealtimes are a strong predictor of positive physical, social, emotional and academic outcomes for children and their families.  Building on research about the “why” of family dinners, The Family Dinner Project is the “how” of family dinners, offering tools and resources to help families improve the quantity and quality of their dinners together.  FDP works with families through in-person workshops and community events with parents and families, as well as online through the FDP website (  The program’s goal is to inspire real and lasting behavior change in families.  This initiative is actively supported by research. It will draw upon current literature on family dinners and evaluate current tools and methods. Major project activities will include: 1) spreading the message of The Family Dinner Project through programs, networks and partnerships, 2) offering materials, tools, organizing efforts to help families and groups to improve the quantity and quality of their family meals and 3) continuing to assess, refine, and improve these tools and initiatives.The FDP will increase its impact via programs and connections that have large audiences like pediatricians, museums, businesses, other strategic collaborations and publicity, building our online presence and outreach opportunities. In addition to our standard assessment work, progress on these goals will help us understand how well we’re engaging families in activities that lead to behavior change. Via large-scale conferences and other opportunities we will deliver current materials, develop new tools, and access their quality and impact.<P><h4>Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century (2017-2019)<br>Andrew Mellon Foundation </h4><P>The United States has long been a leader in four-year higher education — an approach that surveys knowledge broadly, encourages in-depth study in at least one discipline, and is not primarily vocational training. This form of education has been admired globally and is increasingly emulated in other nations. Yet in recent years, the value of education in the liberal arts and sciences (hereafter, liberal arts) has been questioned and, indeed, challenged by a number of factors, including rising costs, hyper-vocationalism, various forms of online education, and numerous socialtensions.Over the years there have been numerous eloquent defenses of education in the liberal arts. While appreciative of and drawing on these accounts, we came to believe that there is a compelling need to understand better (empirically) how those most involved in higher education today conceive of this valued yet threatened form. Accordingly, in the summer of 2013, we launched a national project called “Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century” (hereafter LAS21).Through this empirical research project, we study in-depth the perspectives of major stakeholders at a diverse group of campuses with respect to the nature, challenges, and value of higher education at this time. Specifically, through hour-long, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with individuals on and off campus, we look for areas of alignment and misalignment among stakeholders with respect to a variety of issues — among them curricula, pedagogy, strengths and problems ofcampus life, as well as the overall value, values, and purposes of higher education. We analyze these data through a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods. Ultimately, these carefully analyzed data will form the basis for recommendations about how higher education in the liberal arts and sciences should be rethought and, as necessary, reinvented for the 21st century.The project has two overarching aims:1) Within the community of higher education (including leaders and researchers), we will present — in de-identified form — findings from what may well be the most ambitious contemporary effort to describe the ‘mental models’ of several different constituencies on at least ten campuses. This information, which complements other classical and ongoing studies of higher education, should prove valuable to those who are charged with understanding and improving higher education today.2) For the broader national and international communities, we will present our findings in accessible form. In addition, we will make data-based recommendations on how to preserve the traditional purposes and strengths of liberal arts education, while also strengthening and, insofar as advisable, transforming this form of education so that it is appropriate and robust for our time. We will use appropriate language, concepts, and media to reach the widest possible audience.<P><h4>MacArthur Research Network on Youth and Participatory Politics - Phase 2 (2016-2017)<br> Mills College</h4><P>In Year 4, the Good Participation team will produce and present additional papers reporting findings from data collection carried out in 2014-15. These papers explore themes related to the quality of participatory practices and, importantly, the educational implications of this research.Additional funds will be used to contribute further to the network’s impact agenda, specifically with regard to educating for participatory politics. In collaboration with other network teams, we aim to develop and disseminate tools and materials from the network that are usable to educators in their practice. As appropriate, we will develop proposals for further funding to support this agenda.<P><h4>Aligned Programs for Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century (2014-2017)<br> Teagle Foundation</h4><P>The Aligned Programs for the 21st Century (ALPS21) is part of a larger empirical study, featuring in-depth interviews of the major stakeholders in contemporary liberal arts education in the United States. The larger study (Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century) seeks to discover the predominant ‘mental models’ of each of the groups of stakeholders, as well as ‘alignments’ and ‘misalignments’ in goals, values, and educational approaches across the various stakeholders. In the study proposed here, we seek to identify “exemplary programs” — courses, formats, co-curricular activities, etc. — that help to increase alignment among the conceptions and aspirations of key constituencies. (As one example of an area where better alignment is apparently needed, students and parents are understandably concerned about immediate employment opportunities, while faculty typically valorize the development of powerful analytic and expressive skills). On the basis of our detailed study, we provide rich descriptions of these programs; how and why they were developed; what lessons were learned and adaptations made along the way; and the ways in which these programs have been formally and informally evaluated. Most crucially, we attend key professional meetings and host on-site meetings where we will offer specific recommendations about how lessons from these programs can be drawn on by (or transferred to) other individuals, programs, and institutions that seek to offer appropriate quality liberal arts education in the years ahead.<P><h4>Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century (2013-2017)<br> Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Lumina Foundation for Education, Spencer Foundation</h4><P>Liberal arts and sciences education at the college level, long practiced and valued in the United States, faces a historic challenge. It is admired and emulated in much of the world for its combination of depth and breadth and its claim to nurture good citizens and good leaders. Families are willing to sacrifice so that their children can attend an institution of higher education. And yet this form of education is being challenged by powerful new forces such as escalating costs, MOOCs, and hyper-vocationalism, as well as by harsh critiques of both student and faculty behavior. Dating back to the nineteenth century, and indeed to classical times, and in the recent writings of college leaders, we have numerous eloquent defenses of the liberal arts and sciences. What we now need are rigorous, data-based approaches that can help this valuable form of education to survive, to thrive under dramatically changed circumstances, and to become available to an ever broadening group of students. Our research team from the Harvard Graduate School of Education has launched an ambitious project, aimed at preserving the heart of a liberal arts and science education while rethinking and, as necessary, reinventing it to be adequate and appropriate for our times. The study begins with interviews of the major constituencies across campuses (incoming students, graduating students, parents, faculty, staff, alumni, trustees, and job recruiters). The models of higher education that emerge from these several key constituencies promise to reveal the extent to which there is alignment or misalignment among them with respect to the goals, values, and means of implementing post-secondary education. As one example: Researchers probe what students think is the purpose of a college education and to what extent their views align with those of the faculty, administration, and other key stakeholders.The project is studying the several constituencies across a diverse group of campuses that value liberal arts and sciences. By the end of the national study, we expect to have studied in-depth at least ten campuses, which differ in size, location, student population, and academic goals. We will also create a survey that can be disseminated online; this instrument will allow the accumulation of data from a wide variety of campuses, including ones outside of the United States.When completed, the study will provide an unprecedented view of similarities and differences within and across campuses, and within and across constituencies. Findings from the study will be made available to the schools being studied; on a de-identified basis, findings will also be reported to the scholarly community and to the general public. As part of a linked effort (ALPS21—Aligned Programs in the Liberal Arts and Sciences), the research team will also highlight flagship programs and approaches which have demonstrable effectiveness and which help to reconcile the disparate views of the methods and goals of higher education. Ultimately the project will develop both general and targeted recommendations, host conferences, issue various publications, and have an active online and social media presence.


Kornhaber, M., & Winner, E. (Eds.). Mind, Work, and Life: A Festschrift on the Occasion of Howard Gardner’s 70th Birthday, with responses by Howard Gardner (Vols. 1-2). Amazon via CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Available online at:,(2014)<P>Gardner, H. and Davis, K.<i>The App Generation: How today's youth navigate identity, intimacy, and imagination in a digital world</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Translated into: Italian, Korean, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinese (simple characters).,(2013)<P>Gardner, H. <i> Truth, beauty, and goodness reframed: Educating for the virtues in the era of truthiness and twitter</i>. (Paperback edition, with new preface). New York, NY: Basic Books.,(2011)<P>James, C., Davis, K., Flores, A., Francis, J., Pettingill, L., Rundle, M., & Gardner, H. <i>Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project</i>. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.,(2009)<P>Gardner, H., Ed. <em>Responsibility at work: How leading professionals act (or don't act) responsibly</em>. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.,(2007)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Five minds for the future</i>. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Translated into Korean, Italian, Japanese, Danish Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Romanian.,(2007)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Multiple intelligences: New horizons</i>. New York: Basic Books. Translated into: Romanian, Chinese (SC), Vietnamese, Indonesian, Korean, and Bulgarian.,(2006)<P>Gardner, H. <i>The development and education of the mind: The collected works of Howard Gardner</i>. London, UK: Routledge. Translated into Italian, Spanish.,(2006)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds</i>. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press. Paperback edition (2006). Translated into French, Spanish, Japanese, Danish, Indonesian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Greek, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Chinese (CC), Chinese (SC), Chinese (short version), Danish, Romanian, Norwegian, and Croatian. Awarded Strategy + Business's Best Business Books of the Year (2004). 2011 Edition with updated preface and bibliography: New York, NY, Basic Books.,(2004)<P>Fischman, W., Solomon, B., Greenspan, D., Gardner, H. <i>Making good: How young people cope with moral dilemmas at work</i>. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Translated into Spanish, Korean, and Chinese.,(2004)<P>Gardner, H. (2002). <i>Howard Gardner in Hong Kong</i>. L.Lo (Ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research.,(2002)<P>Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Damon, W. <i>Good Work: When excellence and ethics meet</i>. New York: Basic Books. Paperback edition with Afterword (2002). Translated into Korean, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Swedish, Chinese and Romanian. Selected as one of ten most important books in Hong Kong (2003). Chosen as a Book of Distinction by the Templeton Foundation.,(2001)<P>Gardner, H. <i> Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century</i>. New York, NY: Basic Books. Translated into German, Spanish, Korean, Hebrew, Chinese (SC), Swedish, Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, Bulgarian, Polish, Turkish, Dutch, and Croatian.,(1999)<P>Gardner, H. <i>The Disciplined mind: What all students should understand</i>. New York: Simon and Schuster. Translated into Portuguese, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Italian, Swedish, Korean, Hebrew, Danish, Turkish, Romanian, Croatian. Excerpted in <i>The Futurist</i>, 34, (2), 30-32, (Mar/Apr 2000) . Paperback edition with new afterword, "A Tale of Two Barns": Penguin Putnam, New York, 2000.,(1999)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Extraordinary minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness</i>. New York: Basic Books. British edition, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997. Translated into French, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Chinese (PRC), Polish, Hungarian, Czech, Spanish, Korean, Indonesian,  and German.,(1997)<P>Gardner, H., with the collaboration of Laskin, E. <i>Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership</i>. New York: Basic Books. Translated into German, Italian, Swedish, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Greek, Korean, Spanish, and Japanese. British Edition: HarperCollins, 1996. Basic Books Paperback.,(1995)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice</i>. New York: Basic Books. Selected by three book clubs. Excerpted in the magazine <i>Behinderte in Familie</i>, <i>Schule und Gesellschaft</i>, <i>vol. 2</i>, 1997. Abridged, Danish translation, 1997, Copenhagen: Glydendal Undervisning. Translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Chinese (Taiwan), Hebrew, Korean, Polish, Chinese (R.C.), Danish, Ukranian, and Japanese.,(1993)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi</i>. New York: Basic Books. Quality Paperback Book Club. Translated into Swedish, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Portuguese, Italian, Slovenian, Korean, Polish, and French.,(1993)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Art education and human development</i>. Los Angeles, CA: The Getty Center for Education in the Arts. Translated into Italian and Spanish.,(1990)<P>Gardner, H. <i>To open minds: Chinese clues to the dilemma of contemporary education</i>. New York, NY: Basic Books. Basic Books Paperback with new introduction, 1991. Translated into Italian and Korean.,(1989)<P>Gardner, H. <i>The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution</i>. New York: Basic Books. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Portuguese. Adopted by six book clubs. Basic Books Paperback with new Epilogue, 1987.,(1985)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences</i>. New York: Basic Books. Selected by five book clubs. British Edition, W. Heinemann. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Hebrew, Chinese, French, and German. Basic Books Paperback, 1985. Tenth Anniversary Edition with new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 1993. Twentieth Anniversary Edition with new introduction. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Translated into Swedish, German, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Chinese (Taiwan), French, Norwegian, Hebrew, Slovenian, Korean, and Czech. Selected by three book clubs. Selected by the Museum of Education for <i>Books of the Century</i> exhibit, Columbia, SC, 1999. Tenth Anniversary British Edition, London: HarperCollins (Fontana Press), 1993.,(1983)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Art, mind, and brain: A cognitive approach to creativity</i>. New York, NY: Basic Books. Basic Books Paperback, 1984. Translated into Spanish, Hebrew, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, and Portuguese.,(1982)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Artful Scribbles: The significance of children's drawings</i>. New York: Basic Books. <i>Behavioral Sciences</i> book service selection. Basic Books Paperback, 1982. Translated into Japanese, French, Spanish, and Chinese.,(1980)<P>Gardner, H. <i>Developmental psychology: An introduction</i>. Boston: Little Brown, International Edition. Second Edition, 1982.,(1979)<P>Gardner, H. <i>The shattered mind</i>. New York: Knopf. Main Selection, <i>Psychology Today</i> Book Club, Jan. 1974; Vintage Paperback, 1976. Quality Paperback Book Club Selection. Routledge and Kegan Paul, British Edition. Translated into Japanese.,(1975)<P>Gardner, H. <i> The arts and human development </i>. New York, NY: Wiley. Translated into Chinese and Portuguese. Second Edition, 1994, New York: Basic Books.,(1973)<P>Gardner, H. <i>The quest for mind: Jean Piaget, Claude Levi-Strauss, and the structuralist movement</i>. New York: NY: Knopf. Vintage paperback, 1974; coventure publication in England, 1975. Second Edition, 1981, University of Chicago Press. Translated into Italian and Japanese.,(1973)


American Philosophical Society, Council Member,(2013-2016)

Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, England,(2007-)

American Academy of Political and Social Sciences,(2000-)

American Academy of Arts and Sciences,(1995-)

Author's Guild,(1985-)

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fellow,(1980-)

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