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Howard Gardner

The John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education
Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Howard Gardner

Degree:  Ph.D., Harvard University, (1971)
Email:  [javascript protected email address]
Phone:  617.496.4929
Personal Site:   Link to Site
Vitae/CV:   Howard Gardner.pdf
Office:  Longfellow 235
Faculty Assistant:  Daniel Mucinskas

Profile

Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He is also an adjunct professor of psychology at Harvard University and senior director of Harvard Project Zero. Among numerous honors, Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship and a Fellowship from the John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 1981 and 2000, respectively. In 1990, he was the first American to receive the University of Louisville's Grawemeyer Award in Education. In recognition of his contributions to both academic theory and public policy, he has received honorary degrees from thirty-one colleges and universities, including institutions in Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, South Korea, and Spain. He has twice been selected by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of 100 most influential public intellectuals in the world. In 2011, Gardner received the Prince of Asturias Award for Social Sciences, and in 2015, he was chosen as the recipient of the Brock International Prize in Education. He has been elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Education, and the London-based Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. He serves on a number of boards, including New York's Museum of Modern Art and the American Philosophical Society.

The author of thirty books translated into thirty-two languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be assessed by standard psychometric instruments (please see multipleintelligencesoasis.org). Since the middle 1990s, Gardner has directed The Good Project, a group of initiatives, founded in collaboration with psychologists Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William Damon, that promotes excellence, engagement, and ethics in education, preparing students to become good workers and good citizens who contribute to the overall well-being of society. Through research-based concepts, frameworks, and resources, the Project seeks to help students reflect upon the ethical dilemmas that arise in everyday life and give them the tools to make thoughtful decisions.

His newest research undertaking is a large-scale national study documenting how different groups think about the goals of college and the value of a course of study emphasizing liberal arts and sciences. The study seeks to understand how the chief constituencies of campuses — incoming students, graduating students, faculty, senior administrators, parents, alumni/ae, trustees and job recruiters — think about these changes and how they may impact the college experience in our time. Ultimately, the study aims to provide valuable suggestions of how best to provide quality, non-professional higher education in the 21st century.

Click here to see a full list of Howard Gardner's courses.

Areas of Expertise
Research

The Good Project
Please see thegoodproject.org for further information.

Awards

Brock International Prize in Education,(2015)

Prince of Asturias Award,(2011)

Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre,(2001)

Guggenheim Fellowship,(2000)

Grawemeyer Award in Education,(1990)

MacArthur Prize Fellowship,(1981)

Sponsored Projects


Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century (2015-2016)
Andrew Mellon Foundation

In the summer of 2013, we launched an ambitious national project, “Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century” (LAS21). The goal of the project is to preserve the strengths of an education in the liberal arts and sciences while rethinking and, as necessary, reinventing this form of education for our times. Our approach has been to study in-depth the perspectives of major stakeholders (incoming students, graduating students, parents, faculty, senior staff, alumni, trustees, and recruiters) at a diverse group of campuses; these campuses all value liberal arts, but differ in selectivity and demography, as well as curricular and co-curricular offerings.

Funding from the Mellon Foundation supports the expansion of the diversity of types of schools to be studied in the overall LAS21 study. Of specific interest is the inclusion of five additional schools from the following categories: a national state university, a religious school, a single-sex institution, an historically black college, an “open curriculum: school, a highly selective school in the far west, and an undergraduate business school (for comparison). The funding will allow us to survey these schools, to make preliminary contacts, and to carry out pilot interviews. If a particular school site seems to be an appropriate choice, we would expand it to a “full site,” eventually conducting approximately 200 interviews on campus. Ultimately, the requested funding will enable us to articulate how different types of schools, with their respective constituencies, conceptualize education in the liberal arts and sciences and to make recommendations that should prove useful across the sector.


Liberal arts and sciences in the 21st century (2015-2016)
Carnegie Corporation

In the summer of 2013, we launched an ambitious national project, “Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century” (LAS21). The goal of the project is to preserve the strengths of an education in the liberal arts and sciences while rethinking and, as necessary, reinventing this form of education for our times. Our approach has been to study in-depth the perspectives of major stakeholders (incoming students, graduating students, parents, faculty, senior staff, alumni, trustees, and recruiters) at a diverse group of campuses; these campuses all value liberal arts, but differ in selectivity and demography, as well as curricular and co-curricular offerings.

Funding from the Carnegie Corporation supports the inclusion of non-traditional liberal arts schools as a key part of our overall LAS21 study. Specifically, we focus on community colleges, an increasingly accessible option for many individuals seeking higher education. The funding allows us to survey these schools, to make preliminary contacts, and to carry out pilot interviews. If a particular school site seems to be an appropriate choice, we would expand it to a “full site,” eventually conducting approximately 225 interviews on campus. Ultimately, this piece of the project enables us to articulate how such less selective schools contribute to our understanding of the value of a liberal arts and sciences education and the general college experience.


The Family Dinner Project (2014-2015)
Poses Foundation

Research demonstrates that family mealtimes are a strong predictor of positive physical, social, emotional and academic outcomes for children and their families. Building on research about the “why” of family dinners, The Family Dinner Project is the “how” of family dinners, offering tools and resources to help families improve the quantity and quality of their dinners together. FDP works with families through in-person workshops and community events with parents and families, as well as online through the FDP website (www.thefamilydinnerproject.org). The program’s goal is to inspire real and lasting behavior change in families.
This initiative is actively supported by research. It will draw upon current literature on family dinners and evaluate current tools and methods. Major project activities will include: 1) spreading the message of The Family Dinner Project through programs, networks and partnerships, 2) offering materials, tools, organizing efforts to help families and groups to improve the quantity and quality of their family meals and 3) continuing to assess, refine, and improve these tools and initiatives.
The FDP will increase its impact via programs and connections that have large audiences like pediatricians, museums, businesses, other strategic collaborations and publicity, building our online presence and outreach opportunities. In addition to our standard assessment work, progress on these goals will help us understand how well we’re engaging families in activities that lead to behavior change. Via large-scale conferences and other opportunities we will deliver current materials, develop new tools, and access their quality and impact.


Aligned Programs for Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century (2014-2017)
Teagle Foundation

The Aligned Programs for the 21st Century (ALPS21) is part of a larger empirical study, featuring in-depth interviews of the major stakeholders in contemporary liberal arts education in the United States. The larger study (Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century) seeks to discover the predominant ‘mental models’ of each of the groups of stakeholders, as well as ‘alignments’ and ‘misalignments’ in goals, values, and educational approaches across the various stakeholders.
In the study proposed here, we seek to identify “exemplary programs” — courses, formats, co-curricular activities, etc. — that help to increase alignment among the conceptions and aspirations of key constituencies. (As one example of an area where better alignment is apparently needed, students and parents are understandably concerned about immediate employment opportunities, while faculty typically valorize the development of powerful analytic and expressive skills). On the basis of our detailed study, we provide rich descriptions of these programs; how and why they were developed; what lessons were learned and adaptations made along the way; and the ways in which these programs have been formally and informally evaluated. Most crucially, we attend key professional meetings and host on-site meetings where we will offer specific recommendations about how lessons from these programs can be drawn on by (or transferred to) other individuals, programs, and institutions that seek to offer appropriate quality liberal arts education in the years ahead.


Fac(ebook)ing History: Digitizing Facing History Lessons Resources (2013-2015)
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

Preparing youth for democracy in the digital age requires a new approach. Traditional forms of political engagement (raising money, discussing issues, reading the news) increasingly occur online. In addition, digital media provide new opportunities to reach large audiences and mobilize networks; help shape public agendas through dialogue and feedback with political leaders; and exert agency in the process of circulation and production of political information. Indeed, studies are showing, amongst those youth who are politically active, participatory politics—interactive, peer-based acts through which individuals and groups seek to exert voice and influence on issues of public concern—have become a significant part of youths’ repertoire of engagement.

At present we lack sufficient models of civic education that respond to this changing landscape. If we want youth to be engaged and effective civic actors, they need support in a range of new media practices. For example, they need supports to help them find and assess the credibility of information and to consider how to circulate and produce content that can reach a sizable audience and have impact. In partnership with Facing History and Ourselves, and as members of the Educating for Participatory Politics network (EPP), we are working to adapt existing Facing History curricular units to include relevant content about the new conditions of civic life presented by the digital age.

The adapted materials are being pilot tested in two Chicago public school classrooms. We draw on research from our Good Participation Project and the broader YPP network, and incorporate design principles and promising practices developed by the EPP network. In addition, we incorporate opportunities for students to practice using digital media tools and resources. Finally, we develop activities where students research issues of concern in their community and strategize about how new media could be best used to address these concerns.


Liberal Arts and Sciences for the 21st Century (2013-2014)
Lumina Foundation

For generations the concept of a liberal arts and sciences education at a college or university has been a core value both for many students and many campuses in the United States. Even on large, public university campuses where large numbers of students choose non-liberal arts majors, most students study at least a bit of liberal arts and sciences. Now this situation is changing and we believe these changes pose both a challenge to conventional thinking and an exciting opportunity.

Each decade for the last four decades, fewer students are studying these topics. Many campuses are cutting back on liberal arts offerings. We believe that in a rapidly changing world, a thoughtful exploration of the liberal arts is perhaps even more important than ever. In fact, we believe this idea may be important not just for the “traditional student” who studies traditional liberal arts, but also for those who choose to major in business or education or other fields in college.

In this project we ask: how can liberal arts be re-invented, what can be changed, to achieve worthy goals for a large number of students? What specific and concrete changes would be most constructive and practical? What adjustments and new ideas would be most constructive to dramatically increase the number of students at American colleges and universities who, regardless of major, choose to explore some liberal arts, who come to value the experience, and who consider such studies a core part of their education?

To explore these questions, we are conducting extensive, in-depth interviews at a sampling of campuses. We ask similar sets of questions of entering freshmen, graduating seniors, their parents, faculty members at the campuses, campus leaders including the president and deans, a sample of trustees, and finally we interview recruiters on our sample campuses. We explore alignment among these different “stakeholders” to see what ideas generate broad agreement, and what topics elicit dramatic disagreements. We believe that this knowledge is essential if viable forms of the liberal arts are to be devised and successfully implemented looking forward.


MacArthur Research Network on Youth and Participatory Politics - Phase 2 (2013-2016)
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

The Good Participation Project is a study of the why, what, and how of contemporary young people’s civic and political participation. The overarching concerns are about the conditions for “good participation” in the contemporary civic and political spheres – including young people’s motivations, beliefs, and the roles of mentors, institutions, and media – and the interplay among these forces. We endeavor to understand the mentoring structures that support participatory politics and the extent to which youth engagement is truly independent of elite institutions, and involves strategic, innovative, and ethical deployment of new media.

We will focus sharply on the roots of participatory politics (including the roles of mentors and institutions across the network studies), the quality of youth’s use of various participatory practices, and the development and expression of youth’s civic identities in social media contexts.


Liberal Arts for the 21st Century (2013-2014)
Spencer Foundation

The liberal arts and sciences (hereafter ‘liberal arts’) at many colleges and universities are struggling and this has been a trend for nearly two generations. The purpose of this project is to explore how liberal arts can be adjusted or re-invented or changed in constructive ways so that this form of education can be available in optimal forms for the future generations of students.
Students entering colleges and universities of all kinds now routinely deal with challenges that are generally new for different kinds of campuses. A first challenge is globalization, a widely used word with different meanings to different people. A second challenge is rapidly changing technologies. A third is the changing demographic that is entirely predictable among students who will begin college in the coming generation. One way to pose this question is simply to ask: What should be different about “the liberal arts” at a college or university campus in the year 2020, compared to what students learned in 1950 or 1970 or even 1990?
To explore this question, we begin by gathering empirical data to explore alignment — or lack of alignment — among different sets of stakeholders from a sample of campuses. We ask similar sets of questions of entering freshmen, graduating seniors, their parents, faculty members at the campuses, campus leaders including the president and deans, a sample of trustees, and finally we interview recruiters on our sample campuses. We explore alignment among these different “stakeholders” to see what ideas generate broad agreement, and what topics elicit dramatic disagreements. We believe that this knowledge is essential if viable forms of the liberal arts are to be devised and successfully implemented looking forward.


Good Collaboration in Education (2012-2015)
Argosy Foundation

With continued funding from the Argosy Foundation to study “good collaboration,” we continue to explore the factors that increase the likelihood of “successful” collaboration in non-profit education; and to identify those factors that serve as warning signs and may contribute to less successful or unproductive collaborations. Our rationale: in our own work, we had observed increasing opportunities and pressures for non-profit organizations to collaborate, and we had also learned how challenging it can be to carry out “good collaboration.” We hoped that this study would contribute both to the scholarly literature and to the ‘toolkit’ of educational practitioners of various callings.

Our work focuses on three major areas. Each of these strands aids our understanding of the general context of collaboration, contributes to a useful and comprehensive ontology, and most importantly, leverages our ability to promote “good collaboration.” Specifically, these three strands include:

1. Continue the investigation of the three-college collaboration among Babson College, Wellesley College, and Olin College;

2. Apply a “state of the art model” developed by our team to explore the formation, maintenance, and outcomes of collaborations and consortia established among higher education institutions; and

3. Develop, pilot and test the effectiveness of a “Good Collaboration Toolkit.”

In sum, collaboration (and mergers) have been widely studied, however based on our own preliminary research, collaborations among non-profit organizations in education have not been widely explored. At the same time, demand for “successful” collaboration in education, especially higher education, has increased. We believe that in addition to sharing research, we also need to offer practical applications for individuals involved with these collaborations. We have come across some relevant sources, but still have not found anything that exemplifies the type of material that we believe will be most helpful. The work carried out in this grant helps us to contribute both research and materials to meet these demands.


A Residency to Synthesize Findings and Applications of the GoodWork Project (2010-2012)
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

Shortly after our residency at the Center, we and our teams spread to opposite coasts: Csikszentmihalyi to Southern California, Damon to Northern California, Gardner in New England. We have sought to get together opportunistically, and of course correspond and speak regularly, but since the spring of 1995, we have not had the opportunity to spend dedicated time together. Now, with fifteen years of thought, study, and practical experiences under our belts, it is high time for us to synthesize what we have learned, put it together in readily accessible form, and consider which lines of work might be carried out going forward, by us or by our steadily enlarging invisible college in the United States and abroad.

The Residency: We propose to spend two weeks together in the summer of 2011, preferably during July at the CASBS. This site is well located, has separate offices for our individual use, allows us access to valued colleagues in the area, and, of symbolic as well as practical significance, brings us back to the site where our work was launched.

During this time, we will review our major lines of work and what we have learned from each—positive lessons as well as pitfalls and blind alleys. As appropriate, we will be in touch with other colleagues by phone and e-mail, and, when possible, arrange transportation and informal in-person meetings with them at the CASBS.

Anticipated Products: We would be less than candid if we were to indicate the exact length, shape and form of our products. Indeed, our first task, already begun, is to contemplate various options. At a minimum, we commit to producing two items:

(1) a written document: an integrated practice-oriented guide to good work across all the professions and spheres that we have studied (many more than were enumerated above have been studied by colleagues and students—see the list of papers posted on goodworkproject.org)

(2) An interactive website, which both features the aforementioned document (or relevant parts thereof) and provides an opportunity for visitors from all over the world to post copy and to interact with one another. One promising model is the goodworktoolkit.org. We have not yet decided whether we should start a separate site or add to one or more of our current websites.

We also expect to develop plans for new phases of work, going forward, but cannot yet say what form these plans will take.

We trust that our prior record of publication testifies to our good faith in meeting these objectives.


Themes that resonate: Identifying prototypes of initial inspiration among New Music composers (2007-2008)
Tides Foundation

This award supports the dissertation project of Shira Katz. The study focuses on the question how living New Music composers discuss inspirational influences on their writing process. Despite growing literature in the field of composition, there remains a gap in our understanding about the prototypical ways that pieces come to fruition.

Publications

Gardner, H. and Davis, K.The App Generation: How today's youth navigate identity, intimacy, and imagination in a digital world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Translated into: Italian, Korean, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinese (simple characters).,(2013)

Gardner, H. Truth, beauty, and goodness reframed: Educating for the virtues in the 21st century. New York, NY: Basic Books. Translated into: Chinese (simple characters), French, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, and Turkish.,(2011)

Gardner, H. Truth, beauty, and goodness reframed: Educating for the virtues in the era of truthiness and twitter. (Paperback edition, with new preface). New York, NY: Basic Books.,(2011)

Gardner, H. Uluslararasi Yasayan Kuramcilar Konferani. Burdur, Turkey: Mehmet Akif Ersoy Universitesi.,(2010)

James, C., Davis, K., Flores, A., Francis, J., Pettingill, L., Rundle, M., & Gardner, H. Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.,(2009)

Gardner, H. Five minds for the future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Translated into Korean, Italian, Japanese, Danish Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Romanian.,(2007)

Gardner, H., Ed. Responsibility at work: How leading professionals act (or don’t act) responsibly. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.,(2007)

Gardner, H. Howard Gardner under fire. In Jeffrey Schaler (Ed.). Illinois: Open Court Publishing.,(2006)

Gardner, H. The development and education of the mind: The collected works of Howard Gardner. London, UK: Routledge. Translated into Italian, Spanish.,(2006)

Gardner, H. Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books. Translated into: Romanian, Chinese (SC), Vietnamese, Indonesian, Korean, and Bulgarian.,(2006)

Gardner, H. Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press. Paperback edition (2006). Translated into French, Spanish, Japanese, Danish, Indonesian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Greek, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Chinese (CC), Chinese (SC), Chinese (short version), Danish, Romanian, Norwegian, and Croatian. Awarded Strategy + Business's Best Business Books of the Year (2004). 2011 Edition with updated preface and bibliography: New York, NY, Basic Books.,(2004)

Fischman, W., Solomon, B., Greenspan, D., Gardner, H. Making good: How young people cope with moral dilemmas at work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Translated into Spanish, Korean, and Chinese.,(2004)

Gardner, H. (2002). Howard Gardner in Hong Kong. L.Lo (Ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research.,(2002)

Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Damon, W. Good Work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books. Paperback edition with Afterword (2002). Translated into Korean, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Swedish, Chinese and Romanian. Selected as one of ten most important books in Hong Kong (2003). Chosen as a Book of Distinction by the Templeton Foundation.,(2001)

Gardner, H. The Disciplined mind: What all students should understand. New York: Simon and Schuster. Translated into Portuguese, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Italian, Swedish, Korean, Hebrew, Danish, Turkish, Romanian, Croatian. Excerpted in The Futurist, 34, (2), 30-32, (Mar/Apr 2000) . Paperback edition with new afterword, "A Tale of Two Barns": Penguin Putnam, New York, 2000.,(1999)

Gardner, H. Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century. New York, NY: Basic Books. Translated into German, Spanish, Korean, Hebrew, Chinese (SC), Swedish, Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, Bulgarian, Polish, Turkish, Dutch, and Croatian.,(1999)

Gardner, H. Extraordinary minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness. New York: Basic Books. British edition, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997. Translated into French, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Chinese (PRC), Polish, Hungarian, Czech, Spanish, Korean, Indonesian, and German.,(1997)

Gardner, H., with the collaboration of Laskin, E. Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books. Translated into German, Italian, Swedish, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Greek, Korean, Spanish, and Japanese. British Edition: HarperCollins, 1996. Basic Books Paperback.,(1995)

Gardner, H. Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books. Quality Paperback Book Club. Translated into Swedish, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Portuguese, Italian, Slovenian, Korean, Polish, and French.,(1993)

Gardner, H. Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books. Selected by three book clubs. Excerpted in the magazine Behinderte in Familie, Schule und Gesellschaft, vol. 2, 1997. Abridged, Danish translation, 1997, Copenhagen: Glydendal Undervisning. Translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Chinese (Taiwan), Hebrew, Korean, Polish, Chinese (R.C.), Danish, Ukranian, and Japanese.,(1993)

Gardner, H. Art education and human development. Los Angeles, CA: The Getty Center for Education in the Arts. Translated into Italian and Spanish.,(1990)

Gardner, H. To open minds: Chinese clues to the dilemma of contemporary education. New York, NY: Basic Books. Basic Books Paperback with new introduction, 1991. Translated into Italian and Korean.,(1989)

Gardner, H. The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Portuguese. Adopted by six book clubs. Basic Books Paperback with new Epilogue, 1987.,(1985)

Gardner, H. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Selected by five book clubs. British Edition, W. Heinemann. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Hebrew, Chinese, French, and German. Basic Books Paperback, 1985. Tenth Anniversary Edition with new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 1993. Twentieth Anniversary Edition with new introduction. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Translated into Swedish, German, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Chinese (Taiwan), French, Norwegian, Hebrew, Slovenian, Korean, and Czech. Selected by three book clubs. Selected by the Museum of Education for Books of the Century exhibit, Columbia, SC, 1999. Tenth Anniversary British Edition, London: HarperCollins (Fontana Press), 1993.,(1983)

Gardner, H. Art, mind, and brain: A cognitive approach to creativity. New York, NY: Basic Books. Basic Books Paperback, 1984. Translated into Spanish, Hebrew, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, and Portuguese.,(1982)

Gardner, H. Artful Scribbles: The significance of children's drawings. New York: Basic Books. Behavioral Sciences book service selection. Basic Books Paperback, 1982. Translated into Japanese, French, Spanish, and Chinese.,(1980)

Gardner, H. Developmental psychology: An introduction. Boston: Little Brown, International Edition. Second Edition, 1982.,(1979)

Gardner, H. The shattered mind. New York: Knopf. Main Selection, Psychology Today Book Club, Jan. 1974; Vintage Paperback, 1976. Quality Paperback Book Club Selection. Routledge and Kegan Paul, British Edition. Translated into Japanese.,(1975)

Gardner, H. The arts and human development . New York, NY: Wiley. Translated into Chinese and Portuguese. Second Edition, 1994, New York: Basic Books.,(1973)

Gardner, H. The quest for mind: Jean Piaget, Claude Levi-Strauss, and the structuralist movement. New York: NY: Knopf. Vintage paperback, 1974; coventure publication in England, 1975. Second Edition, 1981, University of Chicago Press. Translated into Italian and Japanese.,(1973)

Grossack, M., & Gardner, H. Man and men: Social psychology as social science. Scranton, PA: International Textbook.,(1970)

Associations

American Philosophical Society (Council Member, 2013-2016),(2013-)

Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (England),(2007-)

American Academy of Political and Social Sciences,(2000-)

American Academy of Arts and Sciences,(1995-)

Author's Guild,(1985-)

American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow),(1980-)

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