Directory of People & Offices
The John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education
Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education. He is also adjunct professor of psychology at Harvard University and senior director of Harvard Project Zero. Among numerous honors, Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981. He has received honorary degrees from 26 colleges and universities. In 2005 and 2008, he was named by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of the 100 most influential public intellectuals in the world. The author of 25 books translated into 28 languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be adequately assessed by standard psychometric instruments.
During the past two decades, Gardner and colleagues have been involved in the design of performance-based assessments; education for understanding; the use of multiple intelligences to achieve more personalized curriculum, instruction, and pedagogy; and the quality of interdisciplinary efforts in education. Since the mid-1990s, in collaboration with psychologists Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William Damon, Gardner has directed the GoodWork Project, a study of work that is excellent, engaging, and ethical. More recently, with longtime Project Zero colleagues Lynn Barendsen and Wendy Fischman, he has conducted reflection sessions designed to enhance the understanding and incidence of good work among young people. With Carrie James, he is investigating trust in contemporary society and ethical dimensions entailed in the use of the new digital media. Underway are studies of effective collaboration among nonprofit institutions in education and of conceptions of quality in the contemporary era. In 2008 he delivered a set of three lectures at New Yorks Museum of Modern Art on the topic The True, The Beautiful, and the Good: Reconsiderations in a post-modern, digital era.
- Ph.D., Harvard University
- Gardner, H. Five minds for the future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Translated into Korean, Italian, Japanese, Danish Chinese, Portugese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish,Romanian. (2007)
- Gardner, H., Ed. Responsibility at work: How leading professionals act (or dont act) responsibly. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (2007)
- Gardner, H. Howard Gardner under fire. In Jeffrey Schaler (Ed.). Illinois: Open Court Publishing (2006)
- Gardner, H. Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books. Translated into: Romanian (2006)
- Gardner, H. The development and education of the mind: The collected works of Howard Gardner. London: Routledge. Translated into Italian, Spanish. (2006)
- Fischman, W., Solomon, B., Greenspan, D., Gardner, H. Making good: How young people cope with moral dilemmas at work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Translated into Spanish and Korean. (2004)
- Gardner, H. Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other peoples minds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Paperback edition (2006). Translated into French, Spanish, Japanese, Danish, Indonesian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Greek, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Chinese, Danish, Romanian, Norwegian, and Croatian. Awarded Strategy + Business's Best Business Books of the Year (2004). (2004)
- Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Damon, W. Good Work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books. Paperback edition with Afterword (2002). Translated into Korean, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Swedish, Chinese and Romanian. Selected as one of ten most important books in Hong Kong (2003). Chosen as a Book of Distinction by the Templeton Foundation. (2001)
- Gardner, H. The Disciplined mind: What all students should understand. New York: Simon and Schuster. Translated into Portuguese, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Italian, Swedish, Korean, Hebrew, Danish, Turkish, and Romanian. Excerpted in The Futurist, 34, (2), 30-32, Mar/Apr 2000. Paperback edition with new afterword, "A Tale of Two Barns": Penguin Putnam, New York, 2000. (1999)
- Gardner, H. Extraordinary minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness. New York: Basic Books. British edition, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997. Translated into French, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Chinese (PRC), Polish, Hungarian, Czech, Spanish, Korean, and German. (1997)
- Gardner, H., with the collaboration of Laskin, E. Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books. Translated into German, Italian, Swedish, Portuguese, Chinese (Taiwan), Greek, Korean, Spanish, and Japanese. British Edition: HarperCollins, 1996. Basic Books Paperback. (1995)
- Gardner, H. Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books. Quality Paperback Book Club. Translated into Swedish, German, Spanish, Chinese (Taiwan), Portuguese, Italian, Slovenian, Korean, Polish, and French. (1993)
- Gardner, H. Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books. Translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Chinese (Taiwan), Hebrew, Korean, Polish, Chinese (R.C.), Danish, Ukranian, and Japanese. Selected by three book clubs. Excerpted in the magazine Behinderte in Familie, Schule und Gesellschaft, vol. 2, 1997. Abridged, Danish translation, 1997, Copenhagen: Glydendal Undervisning. (1993)
- Gardner, H. The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Portuguese. Adopted by six book clubs. Basic Books Paperback with new Epilogue, 1987. (1985)
- Gardner, H. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Selected by five book clubs. British Edition, W. Heinemann. Translated into Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Hebrew, Chinese, French, and German. Basic Books Paperback, 1985. Tenth Anniversary Edition with new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 1993. Twentieth Anniversary Edition with new introduction. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Translated into Swedish, German, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Chinese (Taiwan), French, Norwegian, Hebrew, Slovenian, Korean, and Czech. Selected by three book clubs. Selected by the Museum of Education for Books of the Century exhibit, Columbia, SC, 1999. Tenth Anniversary British Edition, London: HarperCollins (Fontana Press), 1993. (1983)
- Gardner, H. Developmental psychology: An introduction. Boston: Little Brown, International Edition. Second Edition, 1982. (1979)
- Gardner, H. The shattered mind. New York: Knopf. Main Selection, Psychology Today Book Club, Jan. 1974; Vintage Paperback, 1976. Quality Paperback Book Club Selection. Routledge and Kegan Paul, British Edition. Translated into Japanese. (1975)
- Honorary Professor at East China Normal University, Shanghai, China (2004)
- Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre (2001)
- Guggenheim Fellowship (2000)
- Grawemeyer Award in Education (1990)
- MacArthur Prize Fellowship (1981)
- Project on Good Work: TheNurturance of Good Work in Young People
- Aligned Programs for Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century, Teagle Foundation, (2014-2017)
The Aligned Programs for the 21st Century (ALPS21) is part of a larger empirical study, featuring in-depth interviews of the major stakeholders in contemporary liberal arts education in the United States. The larger study (Liberal Arts and Sciences in the 21st Century) seeks to discover the predominant mental models of each of the groups of stakeholders, as well as alignments and misalignments in goals, values, and educational approaches across the various stakeholders. In the study proposed here, we seek to identify exemplary programscourses, formats, co-curricular activities, etc.that help to increase alignment among the conceptions and aspirations of key constituencies. (As one example of an area where better alignment is apparently needed, students and parents are understandably concerned about immediate employment opportunities, while faculty typically valorize the development of powerful analytic and expressive skills). On the basis of our detailed study, we will provide rich descriptions of these programs; how and why they were developed; what lessons were learned and adaptations made along the way; and the ways in which these programs have been formally and informally evaluated. Most crucially, we will attend key professional meetings and host on-site meetings where we will offer specific recommendations about how lessons from these programs can be drawn on by (or transferred to) other individuals, programs, and institutions that seek to offer appropriate quality liberal arts education in the years ahead.
- Fac(ebook)ing History: Digitizing Facing History Lessons Resources, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, (2013-2015)
Preparing youth for democracy in the digital age requires a new approach. Traditional forms of political engagement (raising money, discussing issues, reading the news) increasingly occur online. In addition, digital media provide new opportunities to reach large audiences and mobilize networks; help shape public agendas through dialogue and feedback with political leaders; and exert agency in the process of circulation and production of political information. Indeed, studies are showing, amongst those youth who are politically active, participatory politicsinteractive, peer-based acts through which individuals and groups seek to exert voice and influence on issues of public concernhave become a significant part of youths repertoire of engagement. At present we lack sufficient models of civic education that respond to this changing landscape. If we want youth to be engaged and effective civic actors, they need support in a range of new media practices. For example, they need supports to help them find and assess the credibility of information and to consider how to circulate and produce content that can reach a sizable audience and have impact. In partnership with Facing History and Ourselves, and as members of the Educating for Participatory Politics network (EPP), we are working to adapt existing Facing History curricular units to include relevant content about the new conditions of civic life presented by the digital age. The adapted materials are being pilot tested in two Chicago public school classrooms. We draw on research from our Good Participation Project and the broader YPP network, and incorporate design principles and promising practices developed by the EPP network. In addition, we incorporate opportunities for students to practice using digital media tools and resources. Finally, we develop activities where students research issues of concern in their community and strategize about how new media could be best used to address these concerns.
- Liberal Arts and Sciences for the 21st Century, Lumina Foundation, (2013-2014)
For generations the concept of a liberal arts and sciences education at a college or university has been a core value both for many students and many campuses in the United States. Even on large, public university campuses where large numbers of students choose non-liberal arts majors, most students study at least a bit of liberal arts and sciences. Now this situation is changing and we believe these changes pose both a challenge to conventional thinking and an exciting opportunity. Each decade for the last four decades, fewer students are studying these topics. Many campuses are cutting back on liberal arts offerings. We believe that in a rapidly changing world, a thoughtful exploration of the liberal arts is perhaps even more important than ever. In fact, we believe this idea may be important not just for the traditional student who studies traditional liberal arts, but also for those who choose to major in business or education or other fields in college. In this project we ask: how can liberal arts be re-invented, what can be changed, to achieve worthy goals for a large number of students? What specific and concrete changes would be most constructive and practical? What adjustments and new ideas would be most constructive to dramatically increase the number of students at American colleges and universities who regardless of major choose to explore some liberal arts, who come to value the experience, and who consider such studies a core part of their education? To explore these questions, we will conduct extensive, in-depth interviews at a sampling of campuses. We plan to ask similar sets of questions of entering freshmen, graduating seniors, their parents, faculty members at the campuses, campus leaders including the president and deans, a sample of trustees, and finally we plan to interview recruiters on our sample campuses. We will explore alignment among these different stakeholders to see what ideas generate broad agreement, and what topics elicit dramatic disagreements. We believe that this knowledge is essential if viable forms of the liberal arts are to be devised and successfully implemented looking forward.
- MacArthur Research Network on Youth and Participatory Politics - Phase 2, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, (2013-2016)
The Good Participation Project is a study of the why, what, and how of contemporary young peoples civic and political participation. The overarching concerns are about the conditions for good participation in the contemporary civic and political spheres including young peoples motivations, beliefs, and the roles of mentors, institutions, and media and the interplay among these forces. We endeavor to understand the mentoring structures that support participatory politics and the extent to which youth engagement is truly independent of elite institutions, and involves strategic, innovative, and ethical deployment of new media. We will focus sharply on the roots of participatory politics (including the roles of mentors and institutions across the network studies), the quality of youths use of various participatory practices, and the development and expression of youths civic identities in social media contexts.
- Liberal Arts for the 21st Century, Spencer Foundation, (2013-2014)
The liberal arts and sciences (hereafter liberal arts) at many colleges and universities are struggling and this has been a trend for nearly two generations. The purpose of this project is to explore how liberal arts can be adjusted or re-invented or changed in constructive ways so that this form of education can be available in optimal forms for the future generations of students. Students entering colleges and universities of all kinds now routinely deal with challenges that are generally new for different kinds of campuses. A first challenge is globalization, a widely used word with different meanings to different people. A second challenge is rapidly changing technologies. A third is the changing demographic that is entirely predictable among students who will begin college in the coming generation. One way to pose this question is simply to ask: What should be different about the liberal arts at a college or university campus in the year 2020, compared to what students learned in 1950 or 1970 or even 1990? To explore this question, we plan to begin by gathering empirical data to explore alignmentor lack of alignmentamong different sets of stakeholders from a sample of campuses. We plan to ask similar sets of questions of entering freshmen, graduating seniors, their parents, faculty members at the campuses, campus leaders including the president and deans, a sample of trustees, and finally we plan to interview recruiters on our sample campuses. We will explore alignment among these different stakeholders to see what ideas generate broad agreement, and what topics elicit dramatic disagreements. We believe that this knowledge is essential if viable forms of the liberal arts are to be devised and successfully implemented looking forward.
- Good Collaboration in Education, Argosy Foundation, (2012-2015)
With continued funding from the Argosy Foundation to study good collaboration, we continue to explore the factors that increase the likelihood of successful collaboration in non-profit education; and to identify those factors that serve as warning signs and may contribute to less successful or unproductive collaborations. Our rationale: in our own work, we had observed increasing opportunities and pressures for non-profit organizations to collaborate, and we had also learned how challenging it can be to carry out good collaboration. We hoped that this study would contribute both to the scholarly literature and to the toolkit of educational practitioners of various callings. Our work focuses on three major areas. Each of these strands aids our understanding of the general context of collaboration, contributes to a useful and comprehensive ontology, and most importantly, leverages our ability to promote good collaboration. Specifically, these three strands include: 1. Continue the investigation of the three-college collaboration among Babson College, Wellesley College, and Olin College; 2. Apply a state of the art model developed by our team to explore the formation, maintenance, and outcomes of collaborations and consortia established among higher education institutions; and 3. Develop, pilot and test the effectiveness of a Good Collaboration Toolkit. In sum, collaboration (and mergers) have been widely studied, however based on our own preliminary research, collaborations among non-profit organizations in education have not been widely explored. At the same time, demand for successful collaboration in education, especially higher education, has increased. We believe that in addition to sharing research, we also need to offer practical applications for individuals involved with these collaborations. We have come across some relevant sources, but still have not found anything that exemplifies the type of material that we believe will be most helpful. The work carried out in this grant helps us to contribute both research and materials to meet these demands.
- Proposal for Civic Trust and Engagement among Latino Immigrant Young Adults, Carnegie Corporation, (2011-2012)
We request funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York to conduct an 18 month pilot study. This study will lay the foundation for a larger scale study of immigrants from a variety of national origins, with a focus on civic trust and civic engagement. In the proposed pilot study, Immigration Studies at New York University and the Trust Project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education will focus on the fastest growing immigrant origin group in the United StatesLatinos (Suárez-Orozco & Páez, 2009) and investigate their notions of civic trust. The pilot study will feature a mainly qualitative method design: that is, we will carry out in-depth interviews of selected members of each group of interest.The Harvard team will conduct research in the Greater Boston area with first- and second-generation Latino immigrant young adults. We will recruit from key Latino groups including Dominicans, Mexicans, Central Americans, and South Americans. We will recruit from a number of sites including community colleges, four-year colleges, school-to-work programs, and community organizations.
- A Residency to Synthesize Findings and Applications of the GoodWork Project
Shortly after our residency at the Center, we and our teams spread to opposite coasts: Csikszentmihalyi to Southern California, Damon to Northern California, Gardner in New England. We have sought to get together opportunistically, and of course correspond and speak regularly, but since the spring of 1995, we have not had the opportunity to spend dedicated time together. Now, with fifteen years of thought, study, and practical experiences under our belts, it is high time for us to synthesize what we have learned, put it together in readily accessible form, and consider which lines of work might be carried out going forward, by us or by our steadily enlarging invisible college in the United States and abroad. The Residency: We propose to spend two weeks together in the summer of 2011, preferably during July at the CASBS. This site is well located, has separate offices for our individual use, allows us access to valued colleagues in the area, and, of symbolic as well as practical significance, brings us back to the site where our work was launched. During this time, we will review our major lines of work and what we have learned from eachpositive lessons as well as pitfalls and blind alleys. As appropriate, we will be in touch with other colleagues by phone and e-mail, and, when possible, arrange transportation and informal in-person meetings with them at the CASBS. Anticipated Products: We would be less than candid if we were to indicate the exact length, shape and form of our products. Indeed, our first task, already begun, is to contemplate various options. At a minimum, we commit to producing two items: (1) a written document: an integrated practice-oriented guide to good work across all the professions and spheres that we have studied (many more than were enumerated above have been studied by colleagues and studentssee the list of papers posted on goodworkproject.org) (2) An interactive website, which both features the aforementioned document (or relevant parts thereof) and provides an opportunity for visitors from all over the world to post copy and to interact with one another. One promising model is the goodworktoolkit.org. We have not yet decided whether we should start a separate site or add to one or more of our current websites. We also expect to develop plans for new phases of work, going forward, but cannot yet say what form these plans will take. We trust that our prior record of publication testifies to our good faith in meeting these objectives.
- The GoodPlay Project Phase II, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, (2009-2012)
The GoodPlay Project emerged from the GoodWork® Project, a 15-year initiative in which we studied and then developed tools to encourage ethics, excellence, and engagement at work in several professions. Our GoodWork efforts resulted in analytic frameworks for ethics, methods of qualitative research, and prototypes of curricular interventions which could be (and to some extent already have been) readily transferrable to GoodPlay. Our research strategies to date have been largely qualitative; the proposed plans below are in keeping with the qualitative tradition of the GoodWork Project and its research offspring, including GoodPlay (see goodworkproject.org). Our rationale is that the discernment of mental models and development trajectories requires textured answers, opportunities to probe, test hunches, etc. Also, such an approach allows for modest alterations of instruments in order to get at underlying issues that may unexpectedly arise in the course of an interview, focus group, or observation. Surveys or short answer interviews with rigidly structured protocols do not allow for these probing strategies. Even so, with these data we can devise hypotheses for further testing with less in-depth measures from which we can produce quantitative findings. For example, we often pose dilemmas that either present a small number of alternative responses or can be analyzed in terms of an objective categorical system. We can also triangulate our interview findings with secondary sources, including survey studies with larger samples, ethnographies, and case studies.
- Themes that resonate: Identifying prototypes of initial inspiration among New Music composers, Tides Foundation, (2007-2008)
This award supports the dissertation project of Shira Katz. The study focuses on the question how living New Music composers discuss inspirational influences on their writing process. Despite growing literature in the field of composition, there remains a gap in our understanding about the prototypical ways that pieces come to fruition.
A press release on Howard Gardner being named one of the top five influential business thinkers by The Wall Street Journal: Gardner Named Leading Business Thinker and Public Intellectual
A Usable Knowledge article, Five Minds for the Future, about Gardner's book.
An article on Howard Gardner's 'quintet of minds'
Howard Gardner: Thought for the future - a feature story on Howard Gardner and his multiple intelligence theory